The African History (part 1)

The history of Africa began with the emergence of primitive humans, ancient humans, and modern humans (Homo sapiens) in East Africa anatomically at least 200,000 years ago, and continues to this day as a mosaic of diverse and politically developing nation-states. The oldest recorded history is known to appear in Ancient Egypt, and later in Nubia, Sahel, Maghreb and the Horn of Africa. After the desertification of the Sahara, the history of North Africa was intertwined with the Middle East and Southern Europe, and the expansion of the Bantu people spread from today’s Cameroon (Central Africa) wave after wave to most of the sub-Saharan continent. Around 1000 BC and 1AD creating a linguistic commonality across Central and southern parts of the continent.

In the Middle Ages, Islam spread westward from Arabia to Egypt, crossing the Maghreb and the Sahel. Some well-known pre-colonial countries and societies in Africa include the Ajuran Empire, the Bachwezi Empire, D’mt, Adal Sultanate, Alodia, Warsangali Sultanate, Buganda Kingdom, Nri Kingdom, Nok Culture, Mali Empire, Bono State, Songhai Empire, Benin Empire, Oyo Empire, Kingdom of Linda (Punu-yaka), Ashanti Empire, Ghana Empire, Mossi Kingdom, Mutapa Empire, Mapungubwe Kingdom, Sine Kingdom, Sennar Kingdom, Saloum Kingdom of Baol, Kingdom of Kayo, Kingdom of Zimbabwe, Kingdom of kongo, Empire of Kaabu, Kingdom of Ile Ife, Ancient Carthage, Numidia, Mauretania and Aksumite Empire. In its heyday, before European colonialism, Africa was estimated to have as many as 10,000 different countries and autonomous groups with different languages and customs.

From the end of the 15th century, Europeans joined the slave trade. This included triangular trade, where the Portuguese initially acquired slaves through trade, and later forcibly used as part of the Atlantic slave trade. Slaves from western, central and southern Africa were shipped abroad. Subsequently, the colonization of Africa by Europe in the struggle for Africa (1881-1914) rapidly increased from about 10% (1870) to more than 90% (1914). However, with the struggle for independence in many parts of the African continent and the weakening of Europe after the Second World War (1939-1945), the entire African continent has experienced decolonization, which peaked in the year of Africa in 1960.

Disciplines such as oral history, historical linguistics, archeology, and genetics are critical to rediscovering the great ancient African civilization.

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