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The Story Of The Ninth Ruler Of Mali Empire; Mansa Musa

Musa I or Mansa Musa, was the ninth Mansa of the Mali Empire in the Islamic State of West Africa. During the time of Musa’s ascension, Mali was mainly composed of the territory of the former Ghana Empire that was conquered by Mali.

The Mali Empire consisted of lands that now belong to Guinea, Senegal, Mauritania, Gambia, and modern Mali. Musa conquered 24 cities and their surrounding areas. During his reign, Mali was probably the world’s largest gold producer, and Musa is considered as one of the richest historical figures. However, some modern critics have concluded that there is no precise way to quantify Musa’s wealth.

From the year 1324 to1325, Musa performed the hajj. Along the way, he spent time in Cairo, where his generous donation caused the price of gold to drop significantly in more than a decade. After completing the hajj, Musa returned to Mali and annexed the cities of Gao and Timbuktu on his return. Mansa Musa’s original name was Musa. Mansa is the Mande word meaning “ruler” or “king” and was the title of the ruler of the Mali Empire. It is also translated as “conqueror” and “priest-king”. In oral tradition and Timbuktu Chronicles, Musa is called Kanku Musa.

In Mande tradition, it is common for a person’s name to have a mother’s name prefixed, so the name Kanku Musa means Musa, son of Kanku, although it’s not clear whether it’s implicit geneaology is literal. In oral tradition, he is also known as Hidji Mansa in reference to his hajj. As a member of the Keita dynasty, he is also known as Musa Keita. In Songhai language, rulers of Mali such as Musa are called Mali-koi. Koi being a title that expresses authority over a region: in other words, it is the “ruler of Mali”. Most of the information about Musa comes from Arabic documentations written after his hajj, especially the writings of Al-Umari and Ibn Khaldun. During the hajj in Cairo, Moussa met officials such as Ibn Amir Hajib, who learned about him and his country from him, and then passed this information to historians such as Al-Umari.

Although the Mande oral tradition is a rich source of information on other events in the history of the Mali Empire, there is relatively little information about Musa. Other information comes from two 17th century manuscripts written in Timbuktu, namely Tarikh as-Sudan and Tarikh al-fattash. Musa’s father was Faga Leye and his mother may have been Kanku. Faga Leye is the son of Abu Bakr, the brother of Sunjata, the first ruler of the Mali Empire. Ibn Battuta, who visited Mali during the rule of Musa’s brother Sulayman, said that Musa’s grandfather was Sariq Jata. Sariq Jata may be another name for Sunjata, he is actually Musa’s great uncle. Musa’s date of birth is unknown, but he still appears to be a young man in 1324. Tarikh al-fattash claims that Musa accidentally killed Kanku some time before his hajj.

Musa came to power in the early 1300s under unknown circumstances. According to Musa’s own records, his predecessor, Mansa of Mali, probably Muhammed Ibn Qu initiated two Atlantic expeditions. The mansa personally led the second expedition and appointed Musa as his deputy to rule the empire until he returned. When he did not return, Musa was crowned docile, which marked that Sunjata’s descendants inherited the descendants of his brother Abu Bakr. Some modern historians question Musa’s account of the incident, suggesting that he may have deposed his predecessor, and fabricated stories about the journey to explain how he seized power. Moussa was a devout Muslim. His pilgrimage to Mecca, also known as Makkah, made him famous in North Africa and the Middle East. For Musa, Islam is “the gateway to the civilized world of the Eastern Mediterranean.” He would spend a lot of time promoting the development of religion in his empire.

Musa made a pilgrimage that spanned 2,700 miles between 1324 and 1325. His parade reportedly consisted of 60,000 men, all dressed in brocade and Persian silk, including 12,000 slaves, each With 1.8 kg (4 pounds) of gold ingots and heralds dressed in silks, who carried golden rods, organized horses, and handled bags. Musa provided everything needed for the parade and fed people and animals throughout. Those animals included 80 camels, each with 23-136 kilograms (50-300 pounds) of gold dust. Musa gave the gold to the poor people he met along the way. Not only did Musa donate to the cities he passed through on his way to Mecca, including Cairo and Medina, also he exchanged gold for souvenirs. According to reports, he built a mosque every Friday.

Musa’s journey was recorded by several witnesses along the way, who were in awe of its wealth and extensive demonstrations, and the records exist in various sources, including diaries, oral accounts, and histories. It’s also known that Musa visited the Mamluk Sultan, Al-Nasir Muhammad in Egypt in July 1324. Due to the nature of his donation, Musa’s huge expenditures and generous donations caused a decade of large-scale gold recession. In cities such as Cairo, Medina, and Mecca, the sudden influx of gold devalued metals sharply. The prices of commodities and wares arose sharply. This mistake was obvious to Musa so on his way back from Mecca, he borrowed all the gold he could get from money-lenders in Cairo at a high interest rate. This is the only time in history that people directly control the price of gold in the Mediterranean. Some historians believe that the pilgrimage was not so much a religious commitment, as it was to arouse the attention of the international community to the booming Mali.

Al-Umari, who visited Cairo shortly after Musa’s pilgrimage to Mecca, said it was a brilliant display of power, wealth and unprecedented by scale and grandeur. Causing such a severe recession would have served its purpose. After all, Cairo was the leading gold market at the time (people went there to buy a lot of gold). To transfer these markets to Timbuktu or Gao, Musa must first affect Cairo’s gold economy. Musa spared no effort to show off the wealth of his country. His goal was to create ripples, and he was so successful in this area that he included himself and Mali in the 1375 Atlas of Catalan.

In 1325, on the long journey back from Mecca, Musa heard the news that his army had recaptured Gao. One of his generals, Sagmandia, led the work. The City of Gao had been in the empire prior to Sakura’s rule and is a major-though often rebellious, commercial center. Musa took a detour and visited the city where he took King Gao’s two sons, Ali kolon and Suleiman Nar hostages. He returned to Niani with the two children and later educated them in his court. When Mansa Musa returned, he brought many Arab scholars and architects. Musa embarked on a great architectural plan to build mosques and religious schools in Timbuktu and Gao. Especially during his reign, he built Sankore Madrasah, the ancient center of learning (or Sankore University).

In Niani, Musa built the auditorium, which is a building connected to the palace through an inner door. It was “an admirable monument”, crowned by a dome and decorated with brightly colored arabesques. The wooden frames of the upper windows were lined with aluminum foil; those of the lower storey with gold. Like the Great Mosque of Timbuktu, the hall was built of carved stone. During this period, the standard of living in the main central cities of Mali was relatively high. Italian art and architecture scholar Sergio Domian wrote of this period: “Thus was laid the foundation of urban civilization. At its peak, there were at least 400 cities in Mali and within the Niger Delta.

The land is highly developed and densely populated. According to the records, Mansa Musa passed through Timbuktu and Gao on his way to Mecca and included them in his empire when he returned around 1325. The magnificent Timbuktu palace and the great Djinguereber Mosque that still stand today. Timbuktu quickly became a center for commerce, culture, and Islam. The market brought merchants from Hausaland, Egypt, and other African kingdoms. A university was established in the city (and the cities of Djenné and Ségou in Mali). Islam spread through the marketplace and universities, making Timbuktu a new area for Islamic scholarship. News of the city of wealth in the Mali Empire even spread across the Mediterranean to southern Europe. Merchants from Venice, Granada, and Genoa soon added Timbuktu to their maps, trading gold with manufactured goods. Under the Musa government, Sankore University in Timbuktu was re-equipped with jurists, astronomers, and mathematicians. This university became a center of learning and culture, attracting Muslim scholars from all over Africa and the Middle East to Timbuktu. In 1330, the Kingdom of Mossi invaded and conquered the city of Timbuktu. Gao had already been captured by Musa’s generals and Musa quickly recaptured Timbuktu, built stone walls and fortresses, and stationed a standing army to protect the city from future invasions.

Although the Musa Palace has disappeared, the university and mosque are still in Timbuktu today. By the end of Mansa Musa’s reign, Sankoré University had become the university with all the faculty and staff and the largest collection of books in Africa since the Library of Alexandria. Sankoré University can accommodate 25,000 students, has one of the largest libraries in the world, and has approximately 1,000,000 manuscripts.

The date of Mansa Musa’s death is uncertain. Using the time of reign reported by Ibn Khaldun to calculate from the death of Mansa Suleyman in 1360, Musa should have died in 1332. However, Ibn Khaldun also reported that Musa sent envoys to congratulate Abu al-Hassan Ali on his conquest of Tlemcen. The Battle of Tlemcen took place in May 1337, but by the time Abu al-Hassan sent a messenger in response, Musa had died and Suleyman ascended to the throne. Implying that Musa died in 1337. On the contrary, twelve years after Musa’s hajj, about 1337, al-Umari wrote, that Musa’s intention to return to Mali was to abdicate and return to live in Mecca, but died before he could do so suggesting that he died earlier than 1332. It may be that Musa’s son Maghan congratulated Abu al-Hassan, or that Maghan received Abu Hassan’s messenger after Musa’s death. The latter possibility was confirmed by Ibn Khaldun’s reference to Suleyman’s son in that passage, suggesting that he might have mistaken Musa’s brother Suleyman for Musa’s son Maghan. Alternatively, it is possible that Ibn Khaldun’s four-year rule under Maghan actually refers to his ruler, Mali, while Musa was away on the hajj, he only briefly relied on his own rights. In position. Nehemia Levtzion believes that 1337 is the most likely date, this has been accepted by other scholars. Moussa is considered the wealthiest human ever. Although some sources estimate his wealth is equivalent to 400 billion U.S. dollars, it is impossible to calculate it accurately. Musa may have brought up to 18 tons of gold during his hajj.

The Musa Hajj is considered the most glorious moment in West African history. Musa is not well known in the Mande oral tradition. [64] Some jeliw believed that Musa wasted Mali’s wealth. In Mande oral tradition, there is a character named Fajigi, which translates to “Father of hope.” Fajigi is based at least on Musa, but may also include aspects of other characters.

It is recalled that Fajigi went to Mecca to retrieve ritual objects called boliw, which is a feature of the traditional Mande religion. Like Fajigi, Musa is sometimes mistaken for a character named Fakoli in oral tradition, who was the supreme general of Sunjata. Fajigi’s figure combines Islam and traditional beliefs. In the Mande tradition, the name “Musa” has actually become synonymous with pilgrimage, which is why other people remember for pilgrimages, such as Fakoli, are also called Musa.

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